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Energies 2018, 11(2), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020371

Impact of Demand Side Response on a Commercial Retail Refrigeration System

School of Engineering, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 20 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract

The UK National Grid has placed increased emphasis on the development of Demand Side Response (DSR) tariff mechanisms to manage load at peak times. Refrigeration systems, along with HVAC, are estimated to consume 14% of the UK’s electricity and could have a significant role for DSR application. However, characterized by relatively low individual electrical loads and massive asset numbers, multiple low power refrigerators need aggregation for inclusion in these tariffs. In this paper, the impact of the Demand Side Response (DSR) control mechanisms on food retailing refrigeration systems is investigated. The experiments are conducted in a test-rig built to resemble a typical small supermarket store. The paper demonstrates how the temperature and pressure profiles of the system, the active power and the drawn current of the compressors are affected following a rapid shut down and subsequent return to normal operation as a response to a DSR event. Moreover, risks and challenges associated with primary and secondary Firm Frequency Response (FFR) mechanisms, where the load is rapidly shed at high speed in response to changes in grid frequency, is considered. For instance, measurements are included that show a significant increase in peak inrush currents of approx. 30% when the system returns to normal operation at the end of a DSR event. Consideration of how high inrush currents after a DSR event can produce voltage fluctuations of the supply and we assess risks to the local power supply system. View Full-Text
Keywords: Demand Side Response; Firm Frequency Response; National Grid; retail refrigeration systems; inrush current Demand Side Response; Firm Frequency Response; National Grid; retail refrigeration systems; inrush current
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Saleh, I.M.; Postnikov, A.; Arsene, C.; Zolotas, A.C.; Bingham, C.; Bickerton, R.; Pearson, S. Impact of Demand Side Response on a Commercial Retail Refrigeration System. Energies 2018, 11, 371.

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