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Energies 2018, 11(2), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020292

Data Analytics Techniques for Performance Prediction of Steamflooding in Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

1
Department of Petroleum Engineering, School of Mining and Geosciences, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan
2
Faculty of Engineering & Applied Science, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL A1B3X7, Canada
3
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G2, Canada
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G2, Canada
5
Department of Chemical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi 51900, UAE
6
Department of Petroleum Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, Kuwait City 10002, Kuwait
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Abstract

Thermal oil recovery techniques, including steam processes, account for more than 80% of the current global heavy oil, extra heavy oil, and bitumen production. Evaluation of Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs (NFCRs) for thermal heavy oil recovery using field pilot tests and exhaustive numerical and analytical modeling is expensive, complex, and personnel-intensive. Robust statistical models have not yet been proposed to predict cumulative steam to oil ratio (CSOR) and recovery factor (RF) during steamflooding in NFCRs as strong process performance indicators. In this paper, new statistical based techniques were developed using multivariable regression analysis for quick estimation of CSOR and RF in NFCRs subjected to steamflooding. The proposed data based models include vital parameters such as in situ fluid and reservoir properties. The data used are taken from experimental studies and rare field trials of vertical well steamflooding pilots in heavy oil NFCRs reported in the literature. The models show an average error of <6% for the worst cases and contain fewer empirical constants compared with existing correlations developed originally for oil sands. The interactions between the parameters were considered indicating that the initial oil saturation and oil viscosity are the most important predictive factors. The proposed models were successfully predicted CSOR and RF for two heavy oil NFCRs. Results of this study can be used for feasibility assessment of steamflooding in NFCRs View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy oil; fractured carbonate reservoirs; steamflooding; cumulative steam to oil ratio; recovery factor; statistical predictive tools, digitalization, data analytics heavy oil; fractured carbonate reservoirs; steamflooding; cumulative steam to oil ratio; recovery factor; statistical predictive tools, digitalization, data analytics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Shafiei, A.; Ahmadi, M.A.; Dusseault, M.B.; Elkamel, A.; Zendehboudi, S.; Chatzis, I. Data Analytics Techniques for Performance Prediction of Steamflooding in Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs. Energies 2018, 11, 292.

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