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Energies 2018, 11(1), 64; doi:10.3390/en11010064

Practical On-Board Measurement of Lithium Ion Battery Impedance Based on Distributed Voltage and Current Sampling

1,2
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
Clean Energy Automotive Engineering Center, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
2
School of Automotive Studies, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 25 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
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Abstract

Battery impedance based state estimation methods receive extensive attention due to its close relation to internal dynamic processes and the mechanism of a battery. In order to provide impedance for a battery management system (BMS), a practical on-board impedance measuring method based on distributed signal sampling is proposed and implemented. Battery cell perturbing current and its response voltage for impedance calculation are sampled separately to be compatible with BMS. A digital dual-channel orthogonal lock-in amplifier is used to calculate the impedance. With the signal synchronization, the battery impedance is obtained and compensated. And the relative impedance can also be obtained without knowing the current. For verification, an impedance measuring system made up of electronic units sampling and processing signals and a DC-AC converter generating AC perturbing current is designed. A type of 8 Ah LiFePO4 battery is chosen and the valuable frequency range for state estimations is determined with a series of experiments. The battery cells are connected in series and the impedance is measured with the prototype. It is shown that the measurement error of the impedance modulus at 0.1 Hz–500 Hz at 5 °C–35 °C is less than 4.5% and the impedance phase error is less than 3% at <10 Hz at room temperature. In addition, the relative impedance can also be tracked well with the designed system. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle; battery management system; electrochemical impedance; diagnosis; consistency electric vehicle; battery management system; electrochemical impedance; diagnosis; consistency
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Wei, X.; Wang, X.; Dai, H. Practical On-Board Measurement of Lithium Ion Battery Impedance Based on Distributed Voltage and Current Sampling. Energies 2018, 11, 64.

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