Next Article in Journal
A Three-Phase Dynamic Wireless Charging System with Constant Output Voltage
Previous Article in Journal
Economic Model Predictive and Feedback Control of a Smart Grid Prosumer Node
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010046

Simultaneous Provision of Flexible Ramping Product and Demand Relief by Interruptible Loads Considering Economic Incentives

1
School of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38 Zheda Rd., Hangzhou 310027, China
2
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
3
Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
4
Guangzhou Power Supply Company Limited, Guangzhou 510620, China
5
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Bandar Seri Begawan BE1410, Brunei
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2328 KB, uploaded 26 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

To cope with the net load variability in real time, sufficient ramp capability from controllable resources is required. To address the issue of insufficient ramp capacity in real time operations, flexible ramping products (FRPs) have been adopted by some Independent System Operators (ISOs) in the USA as a new market design. The inherent variability and uncertainty caused by renewable energy sources (RESs) call for new FRP providers apart from conventional generating units. The so-called interruptible load (IL) has proved to be useful in maintaining the supply-demand balance by providing demand relief and can be a viable FRP provider in practice. Given this background, this work presents a stochastic real-time unit commitment model considering ramp requirement and simultaneous provision of IL for FRP and demand relief. Load serving entities (LSEs) are included in the proposed model and act as mediators between the ISO and multiple ILs. In particular, incentive compatible contracts are designed to encourage customers to reveal their true outage costs. Case studies indicate both the system and LSEs can benefit by employing the proposed method and ILs can gain the highest profits by signing up a favorable contract. View Full-Text
Keywords: renewable energy; flexible ramping product (FRP); demand relief; interruptible load (IL); economic incentives; stochastic programming renewable energy; flexible ramping product (FRP); demand relief; interruptible load (IL); economic incentives; stochastic programming
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, J.; Wen, F.; Wang, K.; Huang, Y.; Salam, M.A. Simultaneous Provision of Flexible Ramping Product and Demand Relief by Interruptible Loads Considering Economic Incentives. Energies 2018, 11, 46.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top