Next Article in Journal
Study of Time and Meteorological Characteristics of Wind Speed Correlation in Flat Terrains Based on Operation Data
Next Article in Special Issue
Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Food Waste Using CeZrOx
Previous Article in Journal
Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft
Previous Article in Special Issue
Organosolv Fractionation of Softwood Biomass for Biofuel and Biorefinery Applications
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Energies 2018, 11(1), 216; doi:10.3390/en11010216

Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review

Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam-Bornim, Germany
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
USDA-ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 West Lucas Street, Florence, SC 29501, USA
Department of Chemistry, Seoul Women’s University, 621 Hwarang-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01797, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermo Fluid Conversion of Biomass)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [697 KB, uploaded 18 January 2018]   |  


Active research on biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) continues to demonstrate its advantages over other thermochemical processes, in particular the interesting benefits that are associated with carbonaceous solid products, called hydrochar (HC). The areas of applications of HC range from biofuel to doped porous material for adsorption, energy storage, and catalysis. At the same time, intensive research has been aimed at better elucidating the process mechanisms and kinetics, and how the experimental variables (temperature, time, biomass load, feedstock composition, as well as their interactions) affect the distribution between phases and their composition. This review provides an analysis of the state of the art on HTC, mainly with regard to the effect of variables on the process, the associated kinetics, and the characteristics of the solid phase (HC), as well as some of the more studied applications so far. The focus is on research made over the last five years on these topics. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrochar; process modeling; reaction kinetics hydrochar; process modeling; reaction kinetics

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Román, S.; Libra, J.; Berge, N.; Sabio, E.; Ro, K.; Li, L.; Ledesma, B.; Álvarez, A.; Bae, S. Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review. Energies 2018, 11, 216.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top