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Energies 2018, 11(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010216

Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review

1
Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
2
Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam-Bornim, Germany
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
4
USDA-ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 West Lucas Street, Florence, SC 29501, USA
5
Department of Chemistry, Seoul Women’s University, 621 Hwarang-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01797, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermo Fluid Conversion of Biomass)
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Abstract

Active research on biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) continues to demonstrate its advantages over other thermochemical processes, in particular the interesting benefits that are associated with carbonaceous solid products, called hydrochar (HC). The areas of applications of HC range from biofuel to doped porous material for adsorption, energy storage, and catalysis. At the same time, intensive research has been aimed at better elucidating the process mechanisms and kinetics, and how the experimental variables (temperature, time, biomass load, feedstock composition, as well as their interactions) affect the distribution between phases and their composition. This review provides an analysis of the state of the art on HTC, mainly with regard to the effect of variables on the process, the associated kinetics, and the characteristics of the solid phase (HC), as well as some of the more studied applications so far. The focus is on research made over the last five years on these topics. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrochar; process modeling; reaction kinetics hydrochar; process modeling; reaction kinetics
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Román, S.; Libra, J.; Berge, N.; Sabio, E.; Ro, K.; Li, L.; Ledesma, B.; Álvarez, A.; Bae, S. Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review. Energies 2018, 11, 216.

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