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Energies 2018, 11(1), 118; doi:10.3390/en11010118

On the Compatibility of Electric Equivalent Circuit Models for Enhanced Flooded Lead Acid Batteries Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

1
Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey
2
INCI GS YUASA, 45030 Manisa, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 31 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Abstract

Electric equivalent circuit (EEC) models have been widely used to interpret the inner dynamics of all type of batteries. Added to this, they also have been used to estimate state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) values in combination with different methods. Four EEC models are considered for enhanced flooded lead acid batteries (EFB) which are widely used in micro hybrid vehicles. In this study, impedance and phase prediction capabilities of models throughout a frequency spectrum from 1 mHz to 10 kHz are compared with those of experimental results to investigate their consistency with the data. The battery is charged, discharged, and aged according to appropriate standards which imitates a lifetime of a micro hybrid vehicle battery under high current partial cycling. Impedance tests are repeated between different charge and health states until the end of the battery’s lifetime. It is seen that adding transmission line elements to mimic the high porous electrode electrolyte interface to a double parallel constant phase element resistance model (ZARC) can increase the model data representing capability by 100%. The mean average percentage error (MAPE) of the conventional model with respect to data is 3.2% while the same value of the transmission line added model found as 1.6%. The results can be helpful to represent an EFB in complex simulation environments, which are used in automobile industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro-hybrid vehicles; lead acid battery; enhanced flooded battery; impedance spectroscopy; state of charge; state of health micro-hybrid vehicles; lead acid battery; enhanced flooded battery; impedance spectroscopy; state of charge; state of health
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Aksakal, C.; Sisman, A. On the Compatibility of Electric Equivalent Circuit Models for Enhanced Flooded Lead Acid Batteries Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Energies 2018, 11, 118.

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