Flame Front Propagation in an Optical GDI Engine under Stoichiometric and Lean Burn Conditions
AbstractLean fueling of spark ignited (SI) engines is a valid method for increasing efficiency and reducing nitric oxide (NOx) emissions. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) allows better fuel economy with respect to the port-fuel injection configuration, through greater flexibility to load changes, reduced tendency to abnormal combustion, and reduction of pumping and heat losses. During homogenous charge operation with lean mixtures, flame development is prolonged and incomplete combustion can even occur, causing a decrease in stability and engine efficiency. On the other hand, charge stratification results in fuel impingement on the combustion chamber walls and high particle emissions. Therefore, lean operation requires a fundamentally new understanding of in-cylinder processes for developing the next generation of direct-injection (DI) SI engines. In this paper, combustion was investigated in an optically accessible DISI single cylinder research engine fueled with gasoline. Stoichiometric and lean operations were studied in detail through a combined thermodynamic and optical approach. The engine was operated at a fixed rotational speed (1000 rpm), with a wide open throttle, and at the start of the injection during the intake stroke. The excess air ratio was raised from 1 to values close to the flammability limit, and spark timing was adopted according to the maximum brake torque setting for each case. Cycle resolved digital imaging and spectroscopy were applied; the optical data were correlated to in-cylinder pressure traces and exhaust gas emission measurements. Flame front propagation speed, flame morphology parameters, and centroid motion were evaluated through image processing. Chemical kinetics were characterized based on spectroscopy data. Lean burn operation demonstrated increased flame distortion and center movement from the location of the spark plug compared to the stoichiometric case; engine stability decreased as the lean flammability limit was approached. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Martinez, S.; Irimescu, A.; Merola, S.S.; Lacava, P.; Curto-Riso, P. Flame Front Propagation in an Optical GDI Engine under Stoichiometric and Lean Burn Conditions. Energies 2017, 10, 1337.
Martinez S, Irimescu A, Merola SS, Lacava P, Curto-Riso P. Flame Front Propagation in an Optical GDI Engine under Stoichiometric and Lean Burn Conditions. Energies. 2017; 10(9):1337.Chicago/Turabian Style
Martinez, Santiago; Irimescu, Adrian; Merola, Simona S.; Lacava, Pedro; Curto-Riso, Pedro. 2017. "Flame Front Propagation in an Optical GDI Engine under Stoichiometric and Lean Burn Conditions." Energies 10, no. 9: 1337.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.