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Energies 2017, 10(9), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091279

Recovery of Low Permeability Reservoirs Considering Well Shut-Ins and Surfactant Additivities

1
Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina, Beijing 100083, China
2
Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, G3 Center and Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
3
School of Geosciences, Yangtze University, Wuhan 430100, China
4
Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jacek Majorowicz
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Abstract

To investigate the mechanism whereby well shut-ins and surfactant additivities can increase hydrocarbon output after hydraulic fracturing, in this paper, we simulated well shut-ins with one end open (OEO) rock samples and performed a serious of imbibition experiments with different surfactant additivities based on contact angle (CA) and interfacial tension (IFT) measurements. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods were also been adopted in the detection before and after shut-ins. The results demonstrated that cationic surfactants result in better improving oil recovery (IOR) performance due to their high wettability alteration ability on vertical fracture faces, while different kinds of surfactants have a similar ability in lowering IFT. As for shut-ins duration, the NMR transverse relaxation time (T2) spectrum move towards the left side, indicating that aqueous phases migrate to smaller pores spaces and deeper distances. Aqueous migration during the shut-ins period can remove near-fracture trapped water, while surfactant additivities can accelerate and enhance this process, and these two points are the most direct reasons for the observed hydrocarbon output increases. View Full-Text
Keywords: low permeability reservoir; hydraulic fracturing; well shut-ins; surfactant additivities; imbibition; wettability alteration low permeability reservoir; hydraulic fracturing; well shut-ins; surfactant additivities; imbibition; wettability alteration
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Li, S.; Tang, J.; Ding, Y.; Liu, S.; Liu, G.; Cai, B. Recovery of Low Permeability Reservoirs Considering Well Shut-Ins and Surfactant Additivities. Energies 2017, 10, 1279.

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