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Correction published on 24 October 2017, see Energies 2017, 10(10), 1681.

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1151; doi:10.3390/en10081151

Transport and Deposition of Carbon Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media

1
School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
2
School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Claudia Barolo
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology for Oil and Gas Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4494 KB, uploaded 13 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are becoming promising candidates for oil/gas applications due to their biocompatibility and size-dependent optical and electronic properties. Their applications, however, are always associated with the flow of nanoparticles inside a reservoir, i.e., a porous medium, where insufficient studies have been conducted. In this work, we synthesized CNPs with two different size categories in 200 nm carbon balls (CNP-200) and 5 nm carbon dots (CNP-5), via a hydrothermal carbonation process. Comprehensive experiments in packed glass bead columns, as well as mathematical simulations, were conducted to understand the transport and deposition of CNPs under various ionic strength, particle sizes and concentration conditions. Our results show that the retention of CNP-200 is highly sensitive to the salinity and particle concentrations, while both of them are unaffected in the transport of small CNP-5. Supplemented with Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, the clean bed filtration theory with blocking effect can successfully fit the experimental breakthrough curves of CNP-200. However, the high breakthrough ability for CNP-5 regardless of ionic strength change is in conflict with the energy interactions predicted by traditional DLVO theory. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle transport; carbon nanoparticles; transport mechanism; DLVO theory; size effect nanoparticle transport; carbon nanoparticles; transport mechanism; DLVO theory; size effect
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Hu, Z.; Zhao, J.; Gao, H.; Nourafkan, E.; Wen, D. Transport and Deposition of Carbon Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media. Energies 2017, 10, 1151.

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