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Energies 2017, 10(8), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081097

Optimizing the Structure of Distribution Smart Grids with Renewable Generation against Abnormal Conditions: A Complex Networks Approach with Evolutionary Algorithms

1
Department of Signal Processing and Communications, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, 28805 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, 28805 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guido Carpinelli
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract

In this work, we describe an approach that allows for optimizing the structure of a smart grid (SG) with renewable energy (RE) generation against abnormal conditions (imbalances between generation and consumption, overloads or failures arising from the inherent SG complexity) by combining the complex network (CN) and evolutionary algorithm (EA) concepts. We propose a novel objective function (to be minimized) that combines cost elements, related to the number of electric cables, and several metrics that quantify properties that are beneficial for SGs (energy exchange at the local scale and high robustness and resilience). The optimized SG structure is obtained by applying an EA in which the chromosome that encodes each potential network (or individual) is the upper triangular matrix of its adjacency matrix. This allows for fully tailoring the crossover and mutation operators. We also propose a domain-specific initial population that includes both small-world and random networks, helping the EA converge quickly. The experimental work points out that the proposed method works well and generates the optimum, synthetic, small-world structure that leads to beneficial properties such as improving both the local energy exchange and the robustness. The optimum structure fulfills a balance between moderate cost and robustness against abnormal conditions. Our approach should be considered as an analysis, planning and decision-making tool to gain insight into smart grid structures so that the low level detailed design is carried out by using electrical engineering techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: robustness; abnormal conditions; smart grid; complex network; evolutionary algorithm robustness; abnormal conditions; smart grid; complex network; evolutionary algorithm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Cuadra, L.; Pino, M.D.; Nieto-Borge, J.C.; Salcedo-Sanz, S. Optimizing the Structure of Distribution Smart Grids with Renewable Generation against Abnormal Conditions: A Complex Networks Approach with Evolutionary Algorithms. Energies 2017, 10, 1097.

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