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Energies 2017, 10(7), 989; doi:10.3390/en10070989

System-Level Operational and Adequacy Impact Assessment of Photovoltaic and Distributed Energy Storage, with Consideration of Inertial Constraints, Dynamic Reserve and Interconnection Flexibility

1
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
2
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin D04 V1W8, Ireland
3
Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianfranco Chicco
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Power System Operations and Planning)

Abstract

The growing penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems requires a fundamental understanding of its impact at a system-level. Furthermore, distributed energy storage (DES) technologies, such as batteries, are attracting great interest owing to their ability to provide support to systems with large-scale renewable generation, such as PV. In this light, the system-level impacts of PV and DES are assessed from both operational and adequacy perspectives. Different control strategies for DES are proposed, namely: (1) centralised, to support system operation in the presence of increasing requirements on system ramping and frequency control; and (2) decentralised, to maximise the harnessing of solar energy from individual households while storing electricity generated by PV panels to provide system capacity on request. The operational impacts are assessed by deploying a multi-service unit commitment model with consideration of inertial constraints, dynamic reserve allocation, and interconnection flexibility, while the impacts on adequacy of supply are analysed by assessing the capacity credit of PV and DES through different metrics. The models developed are then applied to different future scenarios for the Great Britain power system, whereby an electricity demand increase due to electrification is also considered. The numerical results highlight the importance of interconnectors to provide flexibility. On the other hand, provision of reserves, as opposed to energy arbitrage, from DES that are integrated into system operation is seen as the most effective contribution to improve system performance, which in turn also decreases the role of interconnectors. DES can also contribute to providing system capacity, but to an extent that is limited by their individual and aggregated energy availability under different control strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaic; distributed energy storage; inertia; system adequacy; renewable energy sources; interconnector photovoltaic; distributed energy storage; inertia; system adequacy; renewable energy sources; interconnector
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Flynn, D.; Mutale, J.; Mancarella, P. System-Level Operational and Adequacy Impact Assessment of Photovoltaic and Distributed Energy Storage, with Consideration of Inertial Constraints, Dynamic Reserve and Interconnection Flexibility. Energies 2017, 10, 989.

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