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Energies 2017, 10(6), 802; doi:10.3390/en10060802

Transmission Power and Antenna Allocation for Energy-Efficient RF Energy Harvesting Networks with Massive MIMO

1
Department of Wireless Communications Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, Korea
2
Flight Control Group, Korean Air R&D Center, Daejeon 461, Korea
3
School of Electronic Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Korea
4
School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fengshou Gu
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Abstract

The optimum transmission strategy for maximizing energy efficiency (EE) of a multi-user massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system in radio frequency energy harvesting networks is investigated. We focus on dynamic time-switching (TS) antennas, to avoid the practical problems of power-splitting antennas, such as complex architectures, power loss and signal distortion when splitting the power of the received signal into power for information decoding (ID) and energy harvesting (EH). However, since a single TS antenna cannot serve ID and EH simultaneously, the MIMO system is considered in this paper. We thus formulate an EE optimization problem and propose an iterative algorithm as a tractable solution, including an antenna selection strategy to optimally switch each TS antenna between ID mode and EH mode using nonlinear fractional programming and the Lagrange dual method. Further, the problem is solved under practical constraints of maximum transmission power and outage probabilities for a minimum amount of harvested power and rate capacity for each user. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is more energy-efficient than that of baseline schemes, and demonstrates the trade-off between the required amount of harvested power and energy efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: radio frequency-energy harvesting; massive MIMO; energy efficiency (EE); resource allocation; time-switching (TS) antenna; Lagrange dual method radio frequency-energy harvesting; massive MIMO; energy efficiency (EE); resource allocation; time-switching (TS) antenna; Lagrange dual method
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hwang, Y.M.; Park, J.H.; Shin, Y.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, D.I. Transmission Power and Antenna Allocation for Energy-Efficient RF Energy Harvesting Networks with Massive MIMO. Energies 2017, 10, 802.

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