Next Article in Journal
Double-Carrier Phase-Disposition Pulse Width Modulation Method for Modular Multilevel Converters
Previous Article in Journal
Performance Comparison between Selected Evaporative Air Coolers
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Energies 2017, 10(4), 578; doi:10.3390/en10040578

Heat Roadmap Europe: Large-Scale Electric Heat Pumps in District Heating Systems

1
Department of Planning, Aalborg University, AC Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad University, PO BOX 823, SE 30118 Halmstad, Sweden
3
Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Rendsburggade 14, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kamel Hooman
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1654 KB, uploaded 25 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document that such developments can begin now with technologies currently available. We present a database and the status of the technology and its ability of expansion to other European locations by reviewing experiences aimed at further research or application in the heating industry. This is based on a survey of the existing capacity of electric large-scale heat pumps with more than 1 MW thermal output, operating in European DH systems. The survey is the first database of its kind containing the technical characteristics of these heat pumps, and provides the basis for the analysis of this paper. By quantifying the heat sources, refrigerants, efficiency and types of operation of 149 units with 1580 MW of thermal output, the study further uses this data to analyze if the deployment of this technology on a large-scale is possible in other locations in Europe. It finally demonstrates that the technical level of the existing heat pumps is mature enough to make them suitable for replication in other locations in Europe. View Full-Text
Keywords: large-scale electric heat pumps; district heating; waste heat; sewage water; natural refrigerants; energy system flexibility large-scale electric heat pumps; district heating; waste heat; sewage water; natural refrigerants; energy system flexibility
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

David, A.; Mathiesen, B.V.; Averfalk, H.; Werner, S.; Lund, H. Heat Roadmap Europe: Large-Scale Electric Heat Pumps in District Heating Systems. Energies 2017, 10, 578.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top