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Energies 2017, 10(4), 516; doi:10.3390/en10040516

CO2 Foam Stability Improvement Using Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles Prepared in Produced Water

Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66046, USA
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Academic Editor: Dongsheng Wen
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology for Oil and Gas Applications)
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Abstract

Despite the increasing interest in CO2 foam flooding for enhanced oil recovery applications, it is challenging to have a successful field operation as the performance of the surfactant is often affected by the presence of crude oil and salinity of the water. It is also challenging to dispose of huge amounts of water associated with the field operation. Due to the incompatibility of the produced water with chemicals used in the foam system, the produced water cannot be used as an injecting fluid. The objective of this project is to design a chemical system compatible with produced water which may fully utilize the oil field produced water as an injecting fluid and make the foam injection economically viable and environmentally friendly. In this study, we investigate the performance of a foam system with a surfactant and the addition of polyelectrolyte and polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PECNP) in various salinities of produced water. A recipe is developed to prepare a nanoparticle solution that is sustainable in high salinity produced water. The rheological property of the foam, the stability, and durability of the foam with and without the presence of crude oil are measured and compared as the water salinity is changed. It is found that foam stability and durability deteriorated when water salinity increased. However, by the addition of polyelectrolyte and PECNP in the system, the foam stability and durability was improved even in high salinity water with or without the presence of crude oil. View Full-Text
Keywords: enhanced oil recovery; foam stability; CO2 foam; nanoparticles; produced water; critical micelles concentration; interfacial tension; polyelectrolyte complexes enhanced oil recovery; foam stability; CO2 foam; nanoparticles; produced water; critical micelles concentration; interfacial tension; polyelectrolyte complexes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nazari, N.; Tsau, J.-S.; Barati, R. CO2 Foam Stability Improvement Using Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles Prepared in Produced Water. Energies 2017, 10, 516.

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