- freely available
Energies 2017, 10(3), 374; doi:10.3390/en10030374
2. Related Work
2.1. Use Case Descriptions According to the Smart Grid Architecture Model
- Use Case Analysis: The first step is an analysis of the use case. It is suggested to use the IEC 62559 template to create an initial use case description .
- Business Layer Design: The business processes, services, and organizations, which are linked to the use case, are mapped to the business layer. These business entities are placed in the appropriate domain and zone.
- Function Layer Design: In the function layer, functions and their interrelations should be represented. The functions are derived from the initial use case description. A use case can be hierarchically divided into sub use cases and functions.
- Component Layer Design: After the business layer and the function layer have been modeled, they have to be matched with a certain system. Thus, the next step is to model the component layer. Based on the actors involved in the use case, and any existing system components, the needed components for the use case can be derived and assigned to a domain and zone. Subsequently, the derived functions from the function layer can be assigned to a corresponding hardware.
- Information Layer Design: In the information layer, the information exchanged between functions, services, and components is represented. Information objects can be identified by analyzing the data exchanged between actors involved in the use case (e.g., using sequence and activity diagrams). Another important aspect of this layer is to represent which data models are used for the information exchange.
- Communication Layer Design: Taking the exchanged information and data models identified in the information layer into account, suitable communication protocols and ICT techniques have to be identified. These should be represented in the communication layer.
2.2. Power Utility Automation
2.2.1. Distributed Control Reference Model—IEC 61499
2.2.2. Interoperability in Power Systems—IEC 61850
2.3. Model-Driven Architectures & Domain-Specific Concepts
2.4. Model-Driven Engineering for Smart Grid Application Development
3. Creating a Rapid Engineering Methodology for Smart Grid Automation
3.1. Actors and Requirements
3.1.1. Actors and Stakeholders
3.2. General Concept
- Rapidness and Effort: Smart grid solutions are becoming more and more complex resulting in increased engineering efforts and costs. Therefore, it is important to improve the rapidness of traditional engineering methods.
- Correctness: Due to the multidisciplinary character of smart grid applications this also requires the engineer to have an expert knowledge in each discipline . This is often not the case, which increases the risk of human errors.
- Handling Legacy Systems: Grid operators expect a long service life of all components in their systems. Since not all devices are changed at the same time it must be possible to handle already existing legacy systems and corresponding units.
- Geographical Dispersion: The distribution of components over large geographical areas requires new ICT approaches and wide-area communication—also for the engineering.
- Interoperability: Interoperability is a critical issue in smart grid applications. This must be assured on all levels, from specifications over implementation, to deployment and finally during operation. Also components from different manufacturers must be handled, which requires a manufacturer independent method.
- Real-Time Constraints: Some applications may enforce real-time constraints on hardware and software. This may demand for special consideration during the whole engineering process.
3.3. Power System Automation Language
3.4. PSAL Definition
3.4.1. System Model
3.4.2. Application Model
4. Mapping a Selected Programming Technique to PSAL
- Choosing a programming technique
- Define how Functions are implemented using
- Define how ServiceImplementations are implemented using
4.1. Choosing a Suitable Programming Technique
- Software components: The Functions in PSAL are simple software components, which means that this concept should be supported. Components should also be able to contain other components, in order to model different levels of detail.
- Information services: Services must be representable by the programming technique. The services can be implemented in different ways, but important is that information can be exchanged between the software components.
- Software component mapping: Once a software component is described, it should be mappable to a system component. This mapping identifies on which hardware the software is executed.
- Deployment: Mapped software components should be easily deployable. This deployment can be either manual or (semi-)automatic.
- Support for multiple protocols: Different communication protocols should be supported by the technique. The more supported protocols, the higher the interoperability with other systems.
4.2. Mapping IEC 61499 to the Function Model of PSAL
4.3. Describing Service Implementations in PSAL Using IEC 61499
4.4. Mapping IEC 61850 to Interfaces and Events in PSAL
5. Use Case Example
5.1. Use Case Analysis
5.2. Business and Function Layers Design
5.3. Component Layer Design
5.4. Information and Communication Layers Design
5.5. Business and Function Layers Revisited: Transformation to IEC 61499
6. Prototypical Implementation and Laboratory Validation
6.1. Prototypical Implementation
6.2. Validation Test Case
6.2.1. Laboratory Implementation
6.2.2. Performed Tests and Results
- Initial specification of the Application and the System using PSAL
- Detailed specification of <interface>s and <event>s using protocol mappings
- Transformation into an IEC 61499 Application499 and System499 model
- Function design by implementation of SubAppTypes499
- Generating and downloading the communication configurations (e.g., SCL files)
- Downloading the Resources499 to their Devices499
- Modeling and design of the use case according to SGAM and a conceptual function design
- Function and code generation of executable code as well as communication configurations
- Deployment of the generated code to field devices
Conflicts of Interest
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|#||Actor Name and Description|
|The operator of the power grid and its corresponding assets. A common activity for the utility operator is the specification of a certain use case or functionality before implementation. The utility operator may also be directly involved in the implementation and validation of applications.|
|The system integrator delivers and integrates a whole or part of a system (e.g., a substation) to a utility operator. Commonly the utility operator specifies an application that is implemented by one or more system integrators.|
|The manufacturer of grid components. This actor must have the possibility to implement functionality on all levels of a component (i.e., low-level as well as high-level functionality).|
|A4||Third-Party Service Provider|
|The third-party service provider may be interested in implementing services for smart grid components (e.g., implementing direct-marketing services for smart inverters).|
|The operator of a power plant or a flexible load (e.g., a building or an energy storage unit). This could, for example, be a virtual power plant operator who needs to optimize the usage of the involved plants. It may also be an aggregator for ancillary services or flexibility.|
|The owner of a power plant or a flexible load. This may in many cases be the same actor as the plant operator. The owner may want to install certain monitoring functionality, or connect the plant to a building automation system.|
|#||Requirement Name and Description|
|ER1||Business Case Specification|
Usually as the first step, before any other specifications are made, it must be clear what the benefit and drawbacks are for the involved actor. This is the definition of business cases and their related goals.
From the business cases, one or more functions are derived. For each distinct function, its inputs, outputs, and goals are specified. This work focuses on automation functions (e.g., control, monitoring, supervisory control).
The specified functions that are owned by the business actor need to be implemented using a formal software specification (e.g., UML, IEC 61499).
The system specification specifies the architecture of the execution hardware and the system upon it will operate. This includes power system equipment, ICT equipment, and field devices. It should be possible to model already existing as well as new smart grid system infrastructure.
In order to know where a function should be executed it must be mapped to an execution platform. This is done with a function-system mapping where one or more functions are assigned to a specific hardware platform.
|ER6||Information Model Specification|
Data that is exchanged between functions must be assigned to an information model, with the purpose to define semantics for the data. It must also be possible to use existing information models (e.g., IEC 61850, SunSpec).
Although an information model is already defined for a certain exchange, it should also be possible to define what kind of protocol is used for the communication. This must also be possible on different OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) layers.
After specification, the use case must be implemented for the specified system (see ER4). This means that functions are ported to their host platform and all communication interfaces must be properly configured.
|ER9||Validation and Testing|
With the validation, the functionality of the system is tested before it is deployed. The validation can either be simulative and/or with real components (e.g., hardware-in-the-loop experiments, laboratory tests).
To operate the implemented application, it must first be deployed to the field. This includes installation of new hardware components, software functions, and configuration of the communication and ICT system.
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