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Energies 2017, 10(3), 352; doi:10.3390/en10030352

Pollutant Formation during the Occurrence of Flame Instabilities under Very-Lean Combustion Conditions in a Liquid-Fuel Burner

1
Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce LE, Italy
2
Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale—Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Terese Løvås
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combustion and Propulsion)
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Abstract

Recent advances in gas turbine combustor design are aimed at achieving low exhaust emissions, hence modern aircraft jet engines are designed with lean-burn combustion systems. In the present work, we report an experimental study on lean combustion in a liquid fuel burner, operated under a non-premixed (single point injection) regime that mimics the combustion in a modern aircraft engine. The flame behavior was investigated in proximity of the blow-out limit by an intensified high rate Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera equipped with different optical filters to selectively record single species chemiluminescence emissions (e.g., OH*, CH*). Analogous filters were also used in combination with photomultiplier (PMT) tubes. Furthermore this work investigates well-mixed lean low NOx combustion where mixing is good and generation of solid carbon particulate emissions should be very low. An analysis of pollutants such as fine particles and gaseous emissions was also performed. Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured at the exhaust of the combustion chamber by two different particle size measuring instruments: a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). NOx concentration measurements were performed by using a cross-flow modulation chemiluminescence detection system; CO concentration emissions were acquired with a Cross-flow modulation Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption method. All the measurements were completed by diagnostics of the fundamental combustor parameters. The results herein presented show that at very-lean conditions the emissions of both particulate matter and CO was found to increase most likely due to the occurrence of flame instabilities while the NOx were observed to reduce. View Full-Text
Keywords: lean combustion; flame instability; chemiluminescence emissions; soot lean combustion; flame instability; chemiluminescence emissions; soot
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Giorgi, M.G.; Campilongo, S.; Ficarella, A.; De Falco, G.; Commodo, M.; D’Anna, A. Pollutant Formation during the Occurrence of Flame Instabilities under Very-Lean Combustion Conditions in a Liquid-Fuel Burner. Energies 2017, 10, 352.

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