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Energies 2017, 10(2), 207; doi:10.3390/en10020207

Linear Formulation for Short-Term Operational Scheduling of Energy Storage Systems in Power Grids

1
Research Center for Innovative Electricity Market Technology, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
3
Department of Mechanical Design and Production Engineering, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chunhua Liu
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 12 February 2017
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Abstract

This paper presents linear programming (LP) formulations for short-term energy time-shift operational scheduling with energy storage systems (ESSs) in power grids. In particular, it is shown that the conventional nonlinear formulations for electric bill minimization, peak shaving, and load leveling can be formulated in the LP framework. New variables for the peak and off-peak values are introduced in peak shaving and load leveling model, and the historical peak value for demand charge are considered in the electric bill minimization model. The LP formulations simplify computation while maintaining the accuracy for including linear technical constraints of ESSs, such as the state-of-charge, charging/discharging efficiency, output power range, and energy limit considering the life cycle of ESS. Proposed LP formulations have been implemented and verified in practical power systems and a large-scale industrial customer using historical data. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric bill minimization; energy arbitrage; energy storage systems (ESSs); linear programming (LP); load-leveling; peak-shaving; short-term optimal operational scheduling electric bill minimization; energy arbitrage; energy storage systems (ESSs); linear programming (LP); load-leveling; peak-shaving; short-term optimal operational scheduling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Park, Y.-G.; Park, J.-B.; Kim, N.; Lee, K.Y. Linear Formulation for Short-Term Operational Scheduling of Energy Storage Systems in Power Grids. Energies 2017, 10, 207.

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