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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1920; doi:10.3390/en10111920

Kinetics and Mechanism of NaOH-Impregnated Calcined Oyster Shell-Catalyzed Transesterification of Soybean Oil

1
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-2765, USA
2
Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-2765, USA
3
Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8203, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Abstract

The objective of this research is to develop a kinetic model to describe the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol using NaOH-impregnated calcined oyster shell (Na-COS). Batch experiments were performed via a two-factor randomized complete block design using a molar ratio of methanol to oil (MR) of 6, 12, and 18 and catalyst loadings (CL) (mass of catalyst/mass of oil in %) of 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% to obtain fatty acid methyl ester yields. In addition, the catalyst was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to elucidate the role of the catalyst in the transesterification reaction. XRD and XPS analyses suggested that the formation of sodium peroxide (Na2O2) on the surface contributed to catalytic activity. The TOF-SIMS analysis suggested that the transesterification occurred between adsorbed triglyceride and free methanol, similar to the Eley-Rideal mechanism. The transesterification of adsorbed triglyceride to adsorbed diglyceride was found to be the rate-determining step with a rate constant of 0.0059 ± 0.0002 L mol−1 min−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: oyster shell; catalyst; transesterification; fatty acid methyl esters; kinetics oyster shell; catalyst; transesterification; fatty acid methyl esters; kinetics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jin, H.; Kolar, P.; Peretti, S.W.; Osborne, J.A.; Cheng, J.J. Kinetics and Mechanism of NaOH-Impregnated Calcined Oyster Shell-Catalyzed Transesterification of Soybean Oil. Energies 2017, 10, 1920.

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