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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1914; doi:10.3390/en10111914

An Interval Fuzzy-Stochastic Chance-Constrained Programming Based Energy-Water Nexus Model for Planning Electric Power Systems

1
,
1,2,3,* , 1,2,3
,
4
and
5
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024, China
2
School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3
Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
4
Sino-Canada Energy and Environmental Research Center, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
5
State Grid Henan Economic Research Institute; No. 87 South Songshan Road, Zhengzhou 450052, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract

In this study, an interval fuzzy-stochastic chance-constrained programming based energy-water nexus (IFSCP-WEN) model is developed for planning electric power system (EPS). The IFSCP-WEN model can tackle uncertainties expressed as possibility and probability distributions, as well as interval values. Different credibility (i.e., γ) levels and probability (i.e., qi) levels are set to reflect relationships among water supply, electricity generation, system cost, and constraint-violation risk. Results reveal that different γ and qi levels can lead to a changed system cost, imported electricity, electricity generation, and water supply. Results also disclose that the study EPS would tend to the transition from coal-dominated into clean energy-dominated. Gas-fired would be the main electric utility to supply electricity at the end of the planning horizon, occupying [28.47, 30.34]% (where 28.47% and 30.34% present the lower bound and the upper bound of interval value, respectively) of the total electricity generation. Correspondingly, water allocated to gas-fired would reach the highest, occupying [33.92, 34.72]% of total water supply. Surface water would be the main water source, accounting for more than [40.96, 43.44]% of the total water supply. The ratio of recycled water to total water supply would increase by about [11.37, 14.85]%. Results of the IFSCP-WEN model present its potential for sustainable EPS planning by co-optimizing energy and water resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: decision making; optimization; sustainability; uncertainty; energy-water nexus decision making; optimization; sustainability; uncertainty; energy-water nexus
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Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Huang, G.; Suo, C.; Yin, S. An Interval Fuzzy-Stochastic Chance-Constrained Programming Based Energy-Water Nexus Model for Planning Electric Power Systems. Energies 2017, 10, 1914.

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