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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1884; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111884

Grid-Tied Photovoltaic and Battery Storage Systems with Malaysian Electricity Tariff—A Review on Maximum Demand Shaving

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Nilai University, Nilai 71800, Malaysia
2
Institute of Power Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
3
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa
4
Faculty of Engineering, Østfold University College, 1671 Kråkeroy-Fredrikstad, Norway
5
Centre for Reliable Power Electronics, Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University,9000 Aalborg, Denmark
6
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Methods for Smart Grids Planning and Management)
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Abstract

Under the current energy sector framework of electricity tariff in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay the maximum demand (MD) charge apart from the net consumption charges every month. The maximum demand charge will contribute up to 20% of the electricity bill, and will hence result in commercial and industrial customers focussing on alternative energy supply to minimize the billing cost. This paper aims to review the technical assessment methods of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV)—battery storage system—with respect to maximum demand shaving. An effective battery storage system can provide the extra energy needed during the peak energy consumption periods, as well as when renewable energy (RE) sources go offline. Based on the reviews, maximum demand shaving with good Return-of-Investment (ROI) can be achieved by considering the actual load profile, technical, and economic aspects of the solar PV-battery system and the Malaysian electricity tariff for commercial and industrial customers. View Full-Text
Keywords: electricity tariff; maximum demand (MD); peak shaving; photovoltaic; battery storage system; net metering electricity tariff; maximum demand (MD); peak shaving; photovoltaic; battery storage system; net metering
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Subramani, G.; Ramachandaramurthy, V.K.; Padmanaban, S.; Mihet-Popa, L.; Blaabjerg, F.; Guerrero, J.M. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic and Battery Storage Systems with Malaysian Electricity Tariff—A Review on Maximum Demand Shaving. Energies 2017, 10, 1884.

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