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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1709; doi:10.3390/en10111709

Modular Multilevel Converters: Control and Applications

1
Department of Electronics Technology, University of Valladolid, 47014 Valladolid, Spain
2
Department of Automation, Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Industrial Computing, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), 28006 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Electronics, Computers Technology and Projects, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, 30202 Cartagena, Murcia, Spain
4
Department of Electronics Technology, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract

This review article is mainly oriented to the control and applications of modular multilevel converters (MMC). The main topologies of the switching modules are presented, for normal operation and for the elimination of DC faults. Methods to keep the capacitor voltage balanced are included. The voltage and current modulators, that are the most internal loops of control, are detailed. Voltage control and current control schemes are included which regulate DC link voltage and reactive power. The cases of unbalanced and distorted networks are analyzed, and schemes are proposed so that MMC contribute to improve the quality of the grid in these situations. The main applications in high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission along with other medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) applications are included. Finally, the application to offshore wind farms is specifically analyzed. View Full-Text
Keywords: capacitor voltage balancing; current controlled converter; D-STATCOM; harmonics; HVDC; modular multilevel converter (MMC); sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (PWM); space-vector modulation (SVM); switching modules (SM) topologies; unbalanced compensation capacitor voltage balancing; current controlled converter; D-STATCOM; harmonics; HVDC; modular multilevel converter (MMC); sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (PWM); space-vector modulation (SVM); switching modules (SM) topologies; unbalanced compensation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez-Rodrigo, F.; Ramirez, D.; Rey-Boue, A.B.; de Pablo, S.; Herrero-de Lucas, L.C. Modular Multilevel Converters: Control and Applications. Energies 2017, 10, 1709.

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