Next Article in Journal
Applications of Hybrid EMD with PSO and GA for an SVR-Based Load Forecasting Model
Previous Article in Journal
Biodiesel from Mandarin Seed Oil: A Surprising Source of Alternative Fuel
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1708; doi:10.3390/en10111708

Approach to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Dimensioning for Urban Electric Buses Regarding Efficiency and Battery Aging

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid, Spain
2
Wynnertech S.L., 28906 Madrid, Spain
3
CIEMAT, Government of Spain, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3403 KB, uploaded 26 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

This paper focuses on Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS), consisting of a combination of batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC), for electric urban busses. The aim of the paper is to develop a methodology to determine the hybridization percentage that allows the electric bus to work with the highest efficiency while reducing battery aging, depending on the chosen topology, control strategy, and driving cycle. Three power electronic topologies are qualitatively analyzed based on different criteria, with the topology selected as the favorite being analyzed in detail. The whole system under study is comprised of the following elements: a battery pack (LiFePO4 batteries), an EDLC pack, up to two DC-DC converters (depending on the topology), and an equivalent load, which behaves as an electric bus drive (including motion resistances and inertia). Mathematical models for the battery, EDLCs, DC-DC converter, and the vehicle itself are developed for this analysis. The methodology presented in this work, as the main scientific contribution, considers performance variation (energy efficiency and battery aging) and hybridization percentage (ratio between batteries and EDLCs, defined in terms of mass), using a power load profile based on standard driving cycles. The results state that there is a hybridization percentage that increases energy efficiency and reduces battery aging, maximizing the economic benefits of the vehicle, for every combination of topology, type of storage device, control strategy, and driving cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery aging; electric bus; energy efficiency; Hybrid Energy Storage battery aging; electric bus; energy efficiency; Hybrid Energy Storage
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nájera, J.; Moreno-Torres, P.; Lafoz, M.; de Castro, R.M.; R. Arribas, J. Approach to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Dimensioning for Urban Electric Buses Regarding Efficiency and Battery Aging. Energies 2017, 10, 1708.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top