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Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study
Department of Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, Mississippi, 39216-4505, USA
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, UMDJ-NJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA
Materials and Processes Laboratory, NASA-Marshall Flight Space Center, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812, USA
State University of New York at Buffalo, Department of Microbiology, Buffalo, New York, 14214-3000, USA
Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, 517 502, India
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2005; Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Abstract: We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed) as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered). E-control (without wrap) was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt solubility of sodium bicarbonate. E-blue inhibited phyto-hemagglutinin-induced immune cell proliferation and mosquito larvae hatching. E-orange stimulated root elongation in seed germination. We conclude that 40-day exposure of water to specific solar spectrum changes chemical and physical properties and influences on biological activity.
Keywords: boron; conductance; germination; mosquito larva hatching; osmolarity; salt solubility; solar energy; T cell proliferation; water
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Cohly, H.H.P.; Panja, A.; Reno, W.L., III; Obenhuber, D.; Koelle, M.S.; Das, S.K.; Angel, M.F.; Rao, M.R. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 219-227.
Cohly HHP, Panja A, Reno WL, III, Obenhuber D, Koelle MS, Das SK, Angel MF, Rao MR. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(2):219-227.
Cohly, Hari H.P.; Panja, Asit; Reno, William L., III; Obenhuber, Don; Koelle, Margot S.; Das, Suman K.; Angel, Michael F.; Rao, M. R. 2005. "Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 2: 219-227.