Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2013; in revised form: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 26 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
Abstract: Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002–2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55–3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59–4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks.
Keywords: arsenic; drinking water; lung cancer
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Dauphiné, D.C.; Smith, A.H.; Yuan, Y.; Balmes, J.R.; Bates, M.N.; Steinmaus, C. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3310-3324.
Dauphiné DC, Smith AH, Yuan Y, Balmes JR, Bates MN, Steinmaus C. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(8):3310-3324.
Dauphiné, David C.; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R.; Bates, Michael N.; Steinmaus, Craig. 2013. "Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 8: 3310-3324.