Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(8), 3310-3324; doi:10.3390/ijerph10083310
Article

Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada

1 School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 2 Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA 3 Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2013; in revised form: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 26 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [339 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 5 August 2013 08:42 CEST]
The original version is still available [260 KB, uploaded 2 August 2013 17:06 CEST]
Abstract: Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002–2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55–3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59–4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks.
Keywords: arsenic; drinking water; lung cancer

Supplementary Files

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dauphiné, D.C.; Smith, A.H.; Yuan, Y.; Balmes, J.R.; Bates, M.N.; Steinmaus, C. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3310-3324.

AMA Style

Dauphiné DC, Smith AH, Yuan Y, Balmes JR, Bates MN, Steinmaus C. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(8):3310-3324.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dauphiné, David C.; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R.; Bates, Michael N.; Steinmaus, Craig. 2013. "Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 8: 3310-3324.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert