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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(8), 3263-3281; doi:10.3390/ijerph10083263
Article

Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy

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Received: 19 June 2013; in revised form: 23 July 2013 / Accepted: 24 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Birth Defect Prevention)
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Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the association between the risks of spina bifida (SB) in relation to cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption by women during the first month of pregnancy. Between 1988–2012, this multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures. We evaluated cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking, and caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy in relation to SB risk. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Levels of cigarette smoking (1–9 and ≥10/day), alcohol intake (average ≥4 drinks/day) and caffeine intake (<1, 1, and ≥2 cups/day) were not likely to be associated with increased risk of SB. Further, results were similar among women who ingested less than the recommended amount of folic acid (400 μg/day).
Keywords: spina bifida; alcohol consumption; caffeine consumption; cigarettes; folic acid; birth defects spina bifida; alcohol consumption; caffeine consumption; cigarettes; folic acid; birth defects
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Benedum, C.M.; Yazdy, M.M.; Mitchell, A.A.; Werler, M.M. Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3263-3281.

AMA Style

Benedum CM, Yazdy MM, Mitchell AA, Werler MM. Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(8):3263-3281.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Benedum, Corey M.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M. 2013. "Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 8: 3263-3281.



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