Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Design of New α-Conotoxins: From Computer Modeling to Synthesis of Potent Cholinergic Compounds
Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya Street, 16/10 Moscow 117997, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2011; in revised form: 29 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conotoxins
Abstract: A series of 14 new analogs of α-conotoxin PnIA Conus pennaceus was synthesized and tested for binding to the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBP) Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica. Based on computer modeling and the X-ray structure of the A. californica AChBP complex with the PnIA[A10L, D14K] analog , single and multiple amino acid substitutions were introduced in α-conotoxin PnIA aimed at compounds of higher affinity and selectivity. Three analogs, PnIA[L5H], PnIA[A10L, D14K] and PnIA[L5R, A10L, D14R], have high affinities for AChBPs or α7 nAChR, as found in competition with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin. That is why we prepared radioiodinated derivatives of these α-conotoxins, demonstrated their specific binding and found that among the tested synthetic analogs, most had almost 10-fold higher affinity in competition with radioactive α-conotoxins as compared to competition with radioactive α-bungarotoxin. Thus, radioiodinated α-conotoxins are a more sensitive tool for checking the activity of novel α-conotoxins and other compounds quickly dissociating from the receptor complexes.
Keywords: α-conotoxin analogs; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; acetylcholine-binding proteins; computer modeling; radioligand analysis
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Khruschov, A.Y.; Tsetlin, V.I. Design of New α-Conotoxins: From Computer Modeling to Synthesis of Potent Cholinergic Compounds. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1698-1714.
Kasheverov IE, Zhmak MN, Khruschov AY, Tsetlin VI. Design of New α-Conotoxins: From Computer Modeling to Synthesis of Potent Cholinergic Compounds. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(10):1698-1714.
Kasheverov, Igor E.; Zhmak, Maxim N.; Khruschov, Alexey Y.; Tsetlin, Victor I. 2011. "Design of New α-Conotoxins: From Computer Modeling to Synthesis of Potent Cholinergic Compounds." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 10: 1698-1714.