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Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(10), 2721-2732; doi:10.3390/md8102721
Article

Toxic Effects of Domoic Acid in the Seabream Sparus aurata

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1 CIIMAR/CIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 177-289, 4150-123 Porto, Portugal 2 Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, ICBAS, Lg. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto, Portugal 3 Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química, As Lagoas Marcosende C.P. 36210, Spain 4 Laboratório de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, ICBAS, Lg. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto, Portugal 5 Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2010 / Revised: 7 October 2010 / Accepted: 14 October 2010 / Published: 15 October 2010
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Abstract

Neurotoxicity induced in fish by domoic acid (DA) was assessed with respect to occurrence of neurotoxic signs, lethality, and histopathology by light microscopy. Sparus aurata were exposed to a single dose of DA by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0, 0.45, 0.9, and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Mortality (66.67 ± 16.67%) was only observed in dose of 9.0 mg kg−1 bw. Signs of neurological toxicity were detected for the doses of 0.9 and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Furthermore, the mean concentrations (±SD) of DA detected by HPLC-UV in extracts of brain after exposure to 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw were 0.61 ± 0.01, 0.96 ± 0.00, and 0.36 ± 0.01 mg DA kg−1 tissue at 1, 2, and 4 hours. The lack of major permanent brain damage in S. aurata, and reversibility of neurotoxic signs, suggest that lower susceptibility to DA or neuronal recovery occurs in affected individuals.
Keywords: domoic acid; amnesic shellfish poisoning; Pseudo-nitzschia; algal neurotoxin; Sparus aurata domoic acid; amnesic shellfish poisoning; Pseudo-nitzschia; algal neurotoxin; Sparus aurata
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Nogueira, I.; Lobo-da-Cunha, A.; Afonso, A.; Rivera, S.; Azevedo, J.; Monteiro, R.; Cervantes, R.; Gago-Martinez, A.; Vasconcelos, V. Toxic Effects of Domoic Acid in the Seabream Sparus aurata. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 2721-2732.

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