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Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(4), 605-623; doi:10.3390/md7040605
Article

Marine Benthic Diatoms Contain Compounds Able to Induce Leukemia Cell Death and Modulate Blood Platelet Activity

1,* , 2
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1 Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Jahnebakken 5, N-5020 Bergen, Norway 2 Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 9, N-5009 Bergen, Norway 3 Proteomic Unit at the University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 9, N-5009 Bergen, Norway # Present address: NIFES, P.O. 2029 Nordnes N-5817 Bergen, Norway.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2009 / Revised: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 17 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
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Abstract

In spite of the high abundance and species diversity of diatoms, only a few bioactive compounds from them have been described. The present study reveals a high number of mammalian cell death inducing substances in biofilm-associated diatoms sampled from the intertidal zone. Extracts from the genera Melosira, Amphora, Phaeodactylum and Nitzschia were all found to induce leukemia cell death, with either classical apoptotic or autophagic features. Several extracts also contained inhibitors of thrombin-induced blood platelet activation. Some of this activity was caused by a high content of adenosine in the diatoms, ranging from 0.07 to 0.31 μg/mg dry weight. However, most of the bioactivity was adenosine deaminase-resistant. An adenosine deaminase-resistant active fraction from one of the extracts was partially purified and shown to induce apoptosis with a distinct phenotype. The results show that benthic diatoms typically found in the intertidal zone may represent a richer source of interesting bioactive compounds than hitherto recognized.
Keywords: adenosine; Amphora sp.; apoptosis; bioactivity; blood platelets; diatoms; drug discovery; Phaeodactylum tricornutum; Melosira sp.; natural products; Nitzshia pusilla adenosine; Amphora sp.; apoptosis; bioactivity; blood platelets; diatoms; drug discovery; Phaeodactylum tricornutum; Melosira sp.; natural products; Nitzshia pusilla
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Prestegard, S.K.; Oftedal, L.; Coyne, R.T.; Nygaard, G.; Skjærven, K.H.; Knutsen, G.; Døskeland, S.O.; Herfindal, L. Marine Benthic Diatoms Contain Compounds Able to Induce Leukemia Cell Death and Modulate Blood Platelet Activity. Mar. Drugs 2009, 7, 605-623.

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