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Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(4), 528-549; doi:10.3390/md20080027
Article

Characterizing the Anti-HIV Activity of Papuamide A

1
, 2
 and 1,*
1 University of Utah, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 30 S. 2000 E. Rm.201, Salt Lake City UT 84112, USA 2 University of Utah, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2008 / Revised: 8 September 2008 / Accepted: 2 October 2008 / Published: 8 October 2008
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Abstract

Papuamide A is representative of a class of marine derived cyclic depsipeptides, reported to have cytoprotective activity against HIV-1 in vitro. We show here that papuamide A acts as an entry inhibitor, preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection of host cells and that this inhibition is not specific to R5 or X4 tropic virus. This inhibition of viral entry was determined to not be due to papuamide A binding to CD4 or HIV gp120, the two proteins involved in the cell-virus recognition and binding. Furthermore, papuamide A was able to inhibit HIV pseudotype viruses expressing envelope glycoproteins from vesicular stomatitis virus or amphotropic murine leukemia virus indicating the mechanism of viral entry inhibition is not HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein specific. Time delayed addition studies with the pseudotyped viruses show that papuamide A inhibits viral infection only at the initial stage of the viral life cycle. Additionally, pretreatment studies revealed that the virus, and not the cell, is the target of papuamide A’s action. Together, these results suggest a direct virucidal mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition by papuamide A. We also demonstrate here that the other papuamides (B-D) are able to inhibit viral entry indicating that the free amino moiety of 2,3-diaminobutanoic acid residue is not required for the virucidal activity.
Keywords: HIV; papuamide A; cyclic depsipeptide; entry inhibitor; marine metabolite HIV; papuamide A; cyclic depsipeptide; entry inhibitor; marine metabolite
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Andjelic, C.D.; Planelles, V.; Barrows, L.R. Characterizing the Anti-HIV Activity of Papuamide A. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 528-549.

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