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Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(2), 164-179; doi:10.3390/md6020164
Article

Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

1
, 1
, 2
, 1
 and 1,*
1 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA 2 Oceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University, Dania Beach FL 33004, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 February 2008 / Revised: 9 May 2008 / Accepted: 13 May 2008 / Published: 22 May 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins)
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Abstract

Okadaic acid (OA) and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS) genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum.
Keywords: okadaic acid; polyketide; polyketide synthase; biosynthesis; Roseobacter. okadaic acid; polyketide; polyketide synthase; biosynthesis; Roseobacter.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Perez, R.; Liu, L.; Lopez, J.; An, T.; Rein, K.S. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 164-179.

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