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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16030081

Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of the Occurrence of Tetrodotoxin Associated to Marine Vibrio spp. in Bivalves from the Galician Rias (Northwest of Spain)

1
Department Analytical and Food Chemistry, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2
EU Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins, 36310 Vigo, Spain
3
Laboratory ASMECRUZ, 36939 Bueu, Pontevedra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
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Abstract

Tetrodotoxins (TTX) are a potent group of natural neurotoxins putatively produced by symbiotic microorganisms and affecting the aquatic environment. These neurotoxins have been recently found in some species of bivalves and gastropods along the European Coasts (Greece, UK, and The Netherlands) linked to the presence of high concentrations of Vibrio, in particular Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This study is focused on the evaluation of the presence of Vibrio species and TTX in bivalves (mussels, oysters, cockles, clams, scallops, and razor clams) from Galician Rias (northwest of Spain). The detection and isolation of the major Vibrio spp. and other enterobacterial populations have been carried out with the aim of screening for the presence of the pathways genes, poliketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) possibly involved in the biosynthesis of these toxins. Samples containing Vibrio spp. were analyzed by biochemical (API20E-galery) and genetic tests (PCR-RT). These samples were then screened for TTX toxicity by a neuroblastoma cell-based assay (N2a) and the presence of TTX was further confirmed by LC-MS/MS. TTX was detected in two infaunal samples. This is the first confirmation of the presence of TTX in bivalve molluscs from the Galician Rias. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; Vibrio; NRPS; PKS; HILIC-LC-MS/MS; bivalve molluscs tetrodotoxin; Vibrio; NRPS; PKS; HILIC-LC-MS/MS; bivalve molluscs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Leão, J.M.; Lozano-Leon, A.; Giráldez, J.; Vilariño, Ó.; Gago-Martínez, A. Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of the Occurrence of Tetrodotoxin Associated to Marine Vibrio spp. in Bivalves from the Galician Rias (Northwest of Spain). Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 81.

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