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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(4), 104; doi:10.3390/md15040104

Optimization of Bromelain-Aided Production of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Hydrolysates from Stone Fish Using Response Surface Methodology

1
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano 700231, Nigeria
3
Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj 66131, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sadanandan E. Velu
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Inhibitors of Marine Origin)
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Abstract

The stone fish is an under-utilized sea cucumber with many nutritional and ethno-medicinal values. This study aimed to establish the conditions for its optimum hydrolysis with bromelain to generate angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory hydrolysates. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was used to model and optimize the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and ACE-inhibitory activity. Process conditions including pH (4–7), temperature (40–70 °C), enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratio (0.5%–2%) and time (30–360 min) were used. A pH of 7.0, temperature of 40 °C, E/S ratio of 2% and time of 240 min were determined using a response surface model as the optimum levels to obtain the maximum ACE-inhibitory activity of 84.26% at 44.59% degree of hydrolysis. Hence, RSM can serve as an effective approach in the design of experiments to improve the antihypertensive effect of stone fish hydrolysates, which can thus be used as a value-added ingredient for various applications in the functional foods industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: ACE inhibitory hydrolysates; degree of hydrolysis; stone fish; central composite design; response surface methodology ACE inhibitory hydrolysates; degree of hydrolysis; stone fish; central composite design; response surface methodology
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Auwal, S.M.; Zarei, M.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Saari, N. Optimization of Bromelain-Aided Production of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Hydrolysates from Stone Fish Using Response Surface Methodology. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 104.

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