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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(5), 83; doi:10.3390/md14050083

Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

1
Institute of Protein Biochemistry, National Research Council, Via P. Castellino, 111, I-80131 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Biology, University of Florence, Via Madonna del Piano 6, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy
3
Marine Biodiscovery Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Old Aberdeen, AB24 3UE Scotland, UK
All the authors belong to the EU-FP7 PharmaSea project.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
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Abstract

Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas) via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL) and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobials; ramnholipids; Antarctic; Bcc; microorganisms antimicrobials; ramnholipids; Antarctic; Bcc; microorganisms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tedesco, P.; Maida, I.; Palma Esposito, F.; Tortorella, E.; Subko, K.; Ezeofor, C.C.; Zhang, Y.; Tabudravu, J.; Jaspars, M.; Fani, R.; de Pascale, D. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 83.

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