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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(2), 35; doi:10.3390/md14020035

Potential Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Astaxanthin

1
Endowed Research Department “Food for Health”, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jikei University Kashiwa Hospital, 163-1 Kashiwashita, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8567, Japan
3
Institute of Life Innovation Studies, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura-machi, Ora-gun, Gunma 374-0193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith B. Glaser
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
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Abstract

Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment classified as a xanthophyll, found in microalgae and seafood such as salmon, trout, and shrimp. This review focuses on astaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Astaxanthin has a unique molecular structure that is responsible for its powerful antioxidant activities by quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. Astaxanthin has been reported to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and adiponectin levels in clinical studies. Accumulating evidence suggests that astaxanthin could exert preventive actions against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) via its potential to improve oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. In addition to identifying mechanisms of astaxanthin bioactivity by basic research, much more epidemiological and clinical evidence linking reduced CVD risk with dietary astaxanthin intake is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; oxidative stress; inflammation; lipid metabolism; glucose metabolism; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease astaxanthin; oxidative stress; inflammation; lipid metabolism; glucose metabolism; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kishimoto, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Kondo, K. Potential Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Astaxanthin. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 35.

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