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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2541-2558; doi:10.3390/md13042541

UPLC-MSE Profiling of Phytoplankton Metabolites: Application to the Identification of Pigments and Structural Analysis of Metabolites in Porphyridium purpureum

1
University of La Rochelle, UMRi CNRS 7266 LIENSs, 17042 La Rochelle, France
2
Platform for the High Resolution Analysis of Biomolecules, University of La Rochelle, UMRi CNRS 7266 LIENSs, 17042 La Rochelle, France
3
IFREMER, Laboratory BRM/PBA, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vassilios Roussis
Received: 11 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
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Abstract

A fast and high-resolution UPLC-MSE analysis was used to identify phytoplankton pigments in an ethanol extract of Porphyridium purpureum (Pp) devoid of phycobiliproteins. In a first step, 22 standard pigments were analyzed by UPLC-MSE to build a database including retention time and accurate masses of parent and fragment ions. Using this database, seven pigments or derivatives previously reported in Pp were unequivocally identified: β,β-carotene, chlorophyll a, zeaxanthin, chlorophyllide a, pheophorbide a, pheophytin a, and cryptoxanthin. Minor amounts of Divinyl chlorophyll a, a chemotaxonomic pigment marker for prochlorophytes, were also unequivocally identified using the database. Additional analysis of ionization and fragmentation patterns indicated the presence of ions that could correspond to hydroxylated derivatives of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a, produced during the ethanolic extraction, as well as previously described galactosyldiacylglycerols, the thylakoid coenzyme plastoquinone, and gracilamide B, a molecule previously reported in the red seaweed Gracillaria asiatica. These data point to UPLC-MSE as an efficient technique to identify phytoplankton pigments for which standards are available, and demonstrate its major interest as a complementary method for the structural elucidation of ionizable marine molecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoid; chlorophyll; dereplication; divinyl chlorophyll a; galactosyldiacylglycerol; gracilamide; mass spectrometry; MSE; phytoplankton; pigment; Porphyridium purpureum; UPLC carotenoid; chlorophyll; dereplication; divinyl chlorophyll a; galactosyldiacylglycerol; gracilamide; mass spectrometry; MSE; phytoplankton; pigment; Porphyridium purpureum; UPLC
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Juin, C.; Bonnet, A.; Nicolau, E.; Bérard, J.-B.; Devillers, R.; Thiéry, V.; Cadoret, J.-P.; Picot, L. UPLC-MSE Profiling of Phytoplankton Metabolites: Application to the Identification of Pigments and Structural Analysis of Metabolites in Porphyridium purpureum. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2541-2558.

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