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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2046-2062; doi:10.3390/md13042046

Toxin Profile of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Portuguese Coast, as Determined by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

1
IPMA—Portuguese Institute of Ocean and Atmosphere/CCMAR—Centre of Marine Sciences Avenida de Brasília s/n, 1449-006 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Department of Marine Sciences, University of South Alabama, 5871 University Drive North, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
3
National Research Council of Canada, Measurement Science and Standards, Biotoxin Metrology, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS B3H 3Z1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alejandro Mayer
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Shellfish Toxins)
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Abstract

The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum has been associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks in Portuguese waters for many years. PSP syndrome is caused by consumption of seafood contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a suite of potent neurotoxins. Gymnodinium catenatum was frequently reported along the Portuguese coast throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, but was absent between 1995 and 2005. Since this time, G. catenatum blooms have been recurrent, causing contamination of fishery resources along the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxin profile of G. catenatum isolated from the Portuguese coast before and after the 10-year hiatus to determine changes and potential impacts for the region. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was utilized to determine the presence of any known and emerging PSTs in sample extracts. Several PST derivatives were identified, including the N-sulfocarbamoyl analogues (C1–4), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), gonyautoxin 6 (GTX6), and decarbamoyl derivatives, decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin (dcNeo) and decarbamoyl gonyautoxin 3 (dcGTX3). In addition, three known hydroxy benzoate derivatives, G. catenatum toxin 1 (GC1), GC2 and GC3, were confirmed in cultured and wild strains of G. catenatum. Moreover, two presumed N-hydroxylated analogues of GC2 and GC3, designated GC5 and GC6, are reported. This work contributes to our understanding of the toxigenicity of G. catenatum in the coastal waters of Portugal and provides valuable information on emerging PST classes that may be relevant for routine monitoring programs tasked with the prevention and control of marine toxins in fish and shellfish. View Full-Text
Keywords: paralytic shellfish poisoning; paralytic shellfish toxins; phytoplankton; shellfish; harmful algal blooms; Gymnodinium catenatum; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry paralytic shellfish poisoning; paralytic shellfish toxins; phytoplankton; shellfish; harmful algal blooms; Gymnodinium catenatum; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Costa, P.R.; Robertson, A.; Quilliam, M.A. Toxin Profile of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Portuguese Coast, as Determined by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2046-2062.

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