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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 1666-1687; doi:10.3390/md13041666

Occurrence of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Shellfish from Galicia (NW of Spain) and Synergies among Them

ANFACO-CECOPESCA, Carretera del Colegio Universitario 16, 36310 Vigo PO, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vítor Vasconcelos
Received: 2 January 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Toxins)
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Abstract

Lipophilic marine toxins pose a serious threat for consumers and an enormous economic problem for shellfish producers. Synergistic interaction among toxins may play an important role in the toxicity of shellfish and consequently in human intoxications. In order to study the toxic profile of molluscs, sampled during toxic episodes occurring in different locations in Galicia in 2014, shellfish were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), the official method for the detection of lipophilic toxins. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose and was validated in house following European guidelines. The vast majority of toxins present in shellfish belonged to the okadaic acid (OA) group and some samples from a particular area contained yessotoxin (YTX). Since these toxins occur very often with other lipophilic toxins, we evaluated the potential interactions among them. A human neuroblastoma cell line was used to study the possible synergies of OA with other lipophilic toxins. Results show that combination of OA with dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2) or YTX enhances the toxicity triggered by OA, decreasing cell viability and cell proliferation, depending on the toxin concentration and incubation time. The effects of other lipophilic toxins as 13-desmethyl Spirolide C were also evaluated in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: synergies; lipophilic toxins; LC–MS/MS; cell culture; neuroblastoma synergies; lipophilic toxins; LC–MS/MS; cell culture; neuroblastoma
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez, L.P.; González, V.; Martínez, A.; Paz, B.; Lago, J.; Cordeiro, V.; Blanco, L.; Vieites, J.M.; Cabado, A.G. Occurrence of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Shellfish from Galicia (NW of Spain) and Synergies among Them. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1666-1687.

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