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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7357-7376; doi:10.3390/md13127070

Potential Threats Posed by Tetrodotoxins in UK Waters: Examination of Detection Methodology Used in Their Control

1
Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
2
Agri-food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, UK
3
Pacific Laboratory Northwest, United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), 22201 23rd Dr, S.E., Bothell, WA 98021, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vítor Vasconcelos
Received: 26 September 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [424 KB, uploaded 11 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin responsible for many human fatalities, most commonly following the consumption of pufferfish. Whilst the source of the toxin has not been conclusively proven, it is thought to be associated with various species of marine bacteria. Whilst the toxins are well studied in fish and gastropods, in recent years, there have been a number of reports of tetrodotoxin occurring in bivalve shellfish, including those harvested from the UK and other parts of Europe. This paper reviews evidence concerning the prevalence of tetrodotoxins in the UK together with methodologies currently available for testing. Biological, biomolecular and chemical methods are reviewed, including recommendations for further work. With the recent development of quantitative chromatographic methods for these and other hydrophilic toxins, as well as the commercial availability of rapid testing kits, there are a number of options available to ensure consumers are protected against this threat. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxins; shellfish; pufferfish poisoning; TTX tetrodotoxins; shellfish; pufferfish poisoning; TTX
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Turner, A.D.; Higgins, C.; Higman, W.; Hungerford, J. Potential Threats Posed by Tetrodotoxins in UK Waters: Examination of Detection Methodology Used in Their Control. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 7357-7376.

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