Next Article in Journal
Fucoidan Extracted from Fucus evanescens Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Damage in a Mouse Model of Endotoxemia
Next Article in Special Issue
Marketed Marine Natural Products in the Pharmaceutical and Cosmeceutical Industries: Tips for Success
Previous Article in Journal
Fucoidan as a Marine Anticancer Agent in Preclinical Development
Previous Article in Special Issue
Analysis of the Toxicity and Histopathology Induced by the Oral Administration of Pseudanabaena galeata and Geitlerinema splendidum (Cyanobacteria) Extracts to Mice
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 871-885; doi:10.3390/md12020871

Gageostatins A–C, Antimicrobial Linear Lipopeptides from a Marine Bacillus subtilis

1 Department of Marine Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, 176 Gajung-dong, 217 Gajungro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350, Korea 2 Marine Natural Products Chemistry Laboratory, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, 426-744, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 31 January 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [403 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |   Browse Figures


Concerning the requirements of effective drug candidates to combat against high rising multidrug resistant pathogens, we isolated three new linear lipopeptides, gageostatins A–C (13), consisting of hepta-peptides and new 3-β-hydroxy fatty acids from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Their structures were elucidated by analyzing a combination of extensive 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic data and high resolution ESIMS data. Fatty acids, namely 3-β-hydroxy-11-methyltridecanoic and 3-β-hydroxy-9,11-dimethyltridecanoic acids were characterized in lipopeptides 1 and 2, respectively, whereas an unsaturated fatty acid (E)-7,9-dimethylundec-2-enoic acid was assigned in 3. The 3R configuration of the stereocenter of 3-β-hydroxy fatty acids in 1 and 2 was established by Mosher’s MTPA method. The absolute stereochemistry of amino acid residues in 13 was ascertained by acid hydrolysis followed by Marfey’s derivatization studies. Gageostatins 13 exhibited good antifungal activities with MICs values of 4–32 µg/mL when tested against pathogenic fungi (R. solani, B. cinerea and C. acutatum) and moderate antibacterial activity against bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aeureus, S. typhi and P. aeruginosa) with MICs values of 8–64 µg/mL. Futhermore, gageostatins 13 displayed cytotoxicity against six human cancer cell lines with GI50 values of 4.6–19.6 µg/mL. It is also noteworthy that mixed compounds 1+2 displayed better antifungal and cytotoxic activities than individuals.
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; lipopeptides; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxicity Bacillus subtilis; lipopeptides; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Tareq, F.S.; Lee, M.A.; Lee, H.-S.; Lee, J.-S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Shin, H.J. Gageostatins A–C, Antimicrobial Linear Lipopeptides from a Marine Bacillus subtilis. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 871-885.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert