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New Invertebrate Vectors for PST, Spirolides and Okadaic Acid in the North Atlantic
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto 4619-007, Portugal
Center of Marine and Environmental Research—CIMAR/CIIMAR, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, Porto 4050-123, Portugal
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago of Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Sciences, School of Health and Technology of Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia 4400-330, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2013; in revised form: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Abstract: The prevalence of poisoning events due to harmful algal blooms (HABs) has declined during the last two decades through monitoring programs and legislation, implemented mainly for bivalves. However, new toxin vectors and emergent toxins pose a challenge to public health. Several locations on the Portuguese coast were surveyed between 2009 and 2010 for three distinct biotoxin groups [saxitoxin (PST), spirolide (SPX) and okadaic acid (OA)], in 14 benthic species of mollusks and echinoderms. Our main goals were to detect new vectors and unravel the seasonal and geographical patterns of these toxins. PSTs were analyzed by the Lawrence method, SPXs by LC-MS/MS, and OA by LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS. We report 16 new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic. There were differences in toxin contents among species, but no significant geographical or seasonal patterns were found. Our results suggest that legislation should be adjusted to extend the monitoring of marine toxins to a wider range of species besides edible bivalves.
Keywords: new vectors; PST; okadaic acid; spirolides; North Atlantic
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MDPI and ACS Style
Silva, M.; Barreiro, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Otero, P.; Azevedo, J.; Alfonso, A.; Botana, L.M.; Vasconcelos, V. New Invertebrate Vectors for PST, Spirolides and Okadaic Acid in the North Atlantic. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1936-1960.
Silva M, Barreiro A, Rodriguez P, Otero P, Azevedo J, Alfonso A, Botana LM, Vasconcelos V. New Invertebrate Vectors for PST, Spirolides and Okadaic Acid in the North Atlantic. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(6):1936-1960.
Silva, Marisa; Barreiro, Aldo; Rodriguez, Paula; Otero, Paz; Azevedo, Joana; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor. 2013. "New Invertebrate Vectors for PST, Spirolides and Okadaic Acid in the North Atlantic." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 6: 1936-1960.