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Astaxanthin Suppresses MPP+-Induced Oxidative Damage in PC12 Cells through a Sp1/NR1 Signaling Pathway
Department of Neurology, Fujian Institute of Geriatrics, The Affiliated Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 29 Xinquan Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350001, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2012; in revised form: 22 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Abstract: Objective: To investigate astaxanthin (ATX) neuroprotection, and its mechanism, on a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridine ion (MPP+)-induced cell model of Parkinson’s disease. Methods: Mature, differentiated PC12 cells treated with MPP+ were used as an in vitro cell model. The MTT assay was used to investigate cell viability after ATX treatment, and western blot analysis was used to observe Sp1 (activated transcription factor 1) and NR1 (NMDA receptor subunit 1) protein expression, real-time PCR was used to monitor Sp1 and NR1 mRNA, and cell immunofluorescence was used to determine the location of Sp1 and NR1 protein and the nuclear translocation of Sp1. Results: PC12 cell viability was significantly reduced by MPP+ treatment. The expression of Sp1 and NR1 mRNA and protein were increased compared with the control (p < 0.01). Following co-treatment with ATX and MPP+, cell viability was significantly increased, and Sp1 and NR1 mRNA and protein were decreased, compared with the MPP+ groups (p < 0.01). In addition, mithracycin A protected PC12 cells from oxidative stress caused by MPP+ by specifically inhibiting the expression of Sp1. Moreover, cell immunofluorescence revealed that ATX could suppress Sp1 nuclear transfer. Conclusion: ATX inhibited oxidative stress induced by MPP+ in PC12 cells, via the SP1/NR1 signaling pathway.
Keywords: astaxanthin; Parkinson’s disease; MPP+; PC12 cells; Sp1; NR1
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Ye, Q.; Zhang, X.; Huang, B.; Zhu, Y.; Chen, X. Astaxanthin Suppresses MPP+-Induced Oxidative Damage in PC12 Cells through a Sp1/NR1 Signaling Pathway. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1019-1034.
Ye Q, Zhang X, Huang B, Zhu Y, Chen X. Astaxanthin Suppresses MPP+-Induced Oxidative Damage in PC12 Cells through a Sp1/NR1 Signaling Pathway. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(4):1019-1034.
Ye, Qinyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Bixia; Zhu, Yuangui; Chen, Xiaochun. 2013. "Astaxanthin Suppresses MPP+-Induced Oxidative Damage in PC12 Cells through a Sp1/NR1 Signaling Pathway." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 4: 1019-1034.