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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(2), 300-315; doi:10.3390/md11020300
Article

In Vitro Acylation of Okadaic Acid in the Presence of Various Bivalves’ Extracts

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Received: 9 November 2012; in revised form: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 29 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Okadaic Acid and Dinophysis Toxins)
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Abstract: The dinoflagellate Dinophysis spp. is responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In the bivalves exposed to the toxic bloom of the dinoflagellate, dinophysistoxin 3 (DTX3), the 7-OH acylated form of either okadaic acid (OA) or DTX1, is produced. We demonstrated in vitro acylation of OA with palmitoyl CoA in the presence of protein extract from the digestive gland, but not other tissues of the bivalve Mizuhopecten yessoensis. The yield of 7-O-palmitoyl OA reached its maximum within 2 h, was the highest at 37 °C followed by 28 °C, 16 °C and 4 °C and was the highest at pH 8 in comparison with the yields at pH 6 and pH 4. The transformation also proceeded when the protein extract was prepared from the bivalves Corbicula japonica and Crassostrea gigas. The OA binding protein OABP2 identified in the sponge Halichondria okadai was not detected in the bivalve M. yessoensis, the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis and the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi, though they are known to accumulate diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins. Since DTX3 does not bind to protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, the physiological target for OA and DTXs in mammalian cells, the acylation of DSP toxins would be related to a detoxification mechanism for the bivalve species.
Keywords: okadaic acid; dinophysistoxin; Halichondria okadai; okadaic acid binding protein; diarrhetic shellfish poisoning; acyl coenzyme A transferase; detoxification okadaic acid; dinophysistoxin; Halichondria okadai; okadaic acid binding protein; diarrhetic shellfish poisoning; acyl coenzyme A transferase; detoxification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Konoki, K.; Onoda, T.; Watanabe, R.; Cho, Y.; Kaga, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yotsu-Yamashita, M. In Vitro Acylation of Okadaic Acid in the Presence of Various Bivalves’ Extracts. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 300-315.

AMA Style

Konoki K, Onoda T, Watanabe R, Cho Y, Kaga S, Suzuki T, Yotsu-Yamashita M. In Vitro Acylation of Okadaic Acid in the Presence of Various Bivalves’ Extracts. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(2):300-315.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Konoki, Keiichi; Onoda, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Cho, Yuko; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari. 2013. "In Vitro Acylation of Okadaic Acid in the Presence of Various Bivalves’ Extracts." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 2: 300-315.



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