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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(6), 1244-1265; doi:10.3390/md10061244
Review

Conotoxins that Confer Therapeutic Possibilities

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Received: 6 February 2012; in revised form: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 24 May 2012 / Published: 4 June 2012
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Abstract: Cone snails produce a distinctive repertoire of venom peptides that are used both as a defense mechanism and also to facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey. These peptides target a wide variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, which make them an invaluable resource for studying the properties of these ion channels in normal and diseased states, as well as being a collection of compounds of potential pharmacological use in their own right. Examples include the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceutical drug, Ziconotide (Prialt®; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) that is the synthetic equivalent of the naturally occurring ω-conotoxin MVIIA, whilst several other conotoxins are currently being used as standard research tools and screened as potential therapeutic drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. These developments highlight the importance of driving conotoxin-related research. A PubMed query from 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the collation of 98 recently identified conotoxins with therapeutic potential which are selectively discussed in this review. Protein sequence similarity analysis tentatively assigned uncharacterized conotoxins to predicted functional classes. Furthermore, conotoxin therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders (NDD) was also inferred.
Keywords: Conus; cone snail; peptide; neuropeptide; conotoxin; nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; sodium channel; calcium channel; potassium channel Conus; cone snail; peptide; neuropeptide; conotoxin; nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; sodium channel; calcium channel; potassium channel
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Essack, M.; Bajic, V.B.; Archer, J.A.C. Conotoxins that Confer Therapeutic Possibilities. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 1244-1265.

AMA Style

Essack M, Bajic VB, Archer JAC. Conotoxins that Confer Therapeutic Possibilities. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(6):1244-1265.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Essack, Magbubah; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C. 2012. "Conotoxins that Confer Therapeutic Possibilities." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 6: 1244-1265.


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