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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(4), 890-899; doi:10.3390/md10040890
Article

Astaxanthin Treatment Reduced Oxidative Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Secretion in U937: SHP-1 as a Novel Biological Target

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Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University G. D’Annunzio-Chieti, Chieti 66100, Italy These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2012 / Revised: 22 March 2012 / Accepted: 1 April 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract

It has been suggested that oxidative stress activates various intracellular signaling pathways leading to secretion of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SHP-1 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) which acts as a negative regulator of immune cytokine signaling. However, intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), generated endogenously upon stimulation and exogenously from environmental oxidants, has been known to be involved in the process of intracellular signaling through inhibiting various PTPs, including SHP-1. In this study, we investigated the potential role of astaxanthin, an antioxidant marine carotenoid, in re-establishing SHP-1 negative regulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in U-937 cell line stimulated with oxidative stimulus. ELISA measurement suggested that ASTA treatment (10 µM) reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) induced through H2O2, (100 µM). Furthermore, this property is elicited by restoration of basal SHP-1 protein expression level and reduced NF-κB (p65) nuclear expression, as showed by western blotting experiments.
Keywords: carotenoids; SHP-1 protein; inflammation; astaxanthin carotenoids; SHP-1 protein; inflammation; astaxanthin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Speranza, L.; Pesce, M.; Patruno, A.; Franceschelli, S.; Lutiis, M.A.; Grilli, A.; Felaco, M. Astaxanthin Treatment Reduced Oxidative Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Secretion in U937: SHP-1 as a Novel Biological Target. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 890-899.

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