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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(4), 712-726; doi:10.3390/md10040712

New Gastropod Vectors and Tetrodotoxin Potential Expansion in Temperate Waters of the Atlantic Ocean

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4619-007 Porto, Portugal 2 Center of Marine and Environmental Research–CIMAR/CIIMAR, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal 3 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Sciences, School of Health and Technology of Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, 4400-330 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal 4 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago of Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2012 / Revised: 16 March 2012 / Accepted: 17 March 2012 / Published: 26 March 2012
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Tetrodotoxin is a potent low weight marine toxin found in warm waters, especially of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Intoxications are usually linked to the consumption of the puffer fish, although TTX was already detected in several different edible taxa. Benthic organisms such as mollusks and echinoderms, with different feeding habits, were collected monthly along the Portuguese coast from the summer of 2009 until the end of 2010. The extraction and analysis techniques were optimized and TTX and some analogues were detected for the first time in two intertidal gastropod species—Gibbula umbilicalis and Monodonta lineata by LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS. Although the levels are low, these findings suggest that monitoring of TTX and analogues in North Atlantic species should be implemented so as to detect potentially new toxin vectors and seasonal and/or geographical patterns.
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; new vectors; gastropods; North Atlantic Waters tetrodotoxin; new vectors; gastropods; North Atlantic Waters
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Silva, M.; Azevedo, J.; Rodriguez, P.; Alfonso, A.; Botana, L.M.; Vasconcelos, V. New Gastropod Vectors and Tetrodotoxin Potential Expansion in Temperate Waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 712-726.

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