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Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2006 / Accepted: 20 December 2006 / Published: 29 January 2007
Abstract: This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue) for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and quantification of different key odorants. A total of eight electrodes were sufficient for identification and quantification in micromolar concentrations of the key odorants n-butyrate, ammonium and phenolate in test mixtures also containing iso-valerate, skatole and p-cresolate. The limited number of electrodes decreased the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation of triplicate measurements in comparison with the array comprising 14 electrodes. The electronic tongue was calibrated using 4 different test mixtures, each comprising 50 different combinations of key odorants in triplicates, a total of 600 measurements. Back propagation artificial neural network, partial least square and principal component analysis were used in the data analysis. The results indicate that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an on- line sensor for odorants absorbed in the bioscrubber used in livestock buildings.
Keywords: electronic tongue; odorants; principal component analysis (PCA); partial least squares (PLS); back propagation artificial neural network (BPNN)
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Abu-Khalaf, N.; Lønsmann Iversen, J.J. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings. Sensors 2007, 7, 103-128.
Abu-Khalaf N, Lønsmann Iversen JJ. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings. Sensors. 2007; 7(1):103-128.
Abu-Khalaf, Nawaf; Lønsmann Iversen, Jens J. 2007. "Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings." Sensors 7, no. 1: 103-128.