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Diversity 2016, 8(4), 23; doi:10.3390/d8040023

Determination of Genetic Variations of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2, 4, and 6 with Next-Generation Sequencing in Native Cattle Breeds of Anatolia and Holstein Friesian

1
Department of Animal Genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ankara, Ankara 06610, Turkey
2
Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London AL9 7TA, UK
Work was carried out in fulfillment of the requirements for a Doctoral thesis, The Graduate School of Health Sciences of Ankara University, Ankara 06110, Turkey.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Wink
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract

In recent years, the focus of disease resistance and susceptibility studies in cattle have been on determining patterns in the innate immune response of key proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). In the bovine genome, there are 10 TLR family members and, of these, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 are specialized in the recognition of bacterial ligands. Indigenous cattle breeds of Anatolia have been reported to show fewer signs of clinical bacterial infections, such as bovine tuberculosis and mastitis, and it is hypothesized that this might be due to a less stringent genetic selection during breeding. In contrast, Holstein-Friesian cattle have been under strong selection for milk production, which may have resulted in greater susceptibility to diseases. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 genes of Anatolian Black (AB), East Anatolian Red (EAR), South Anatolian Red (SAR), Turkish Grey (TG), and Holstein (HOL) cattle using next-generation sequencing. The SAR breed had the most variations overall, followed by EAR, AB, TG, and HOL. TG had the most variations for TLR2, whereas SAR had the most variations in TLR4 and TLR6. We compared these variants with those associated with disease and susceptibility traits. We used exon variants to construct haplotypes, investigated shared haplotypes within breeds, and proposed candidate haplotypes for a disease resistance phenotype in Anatolian cattle breeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anatolian Black; East Anatolian Red; South Anatolian Red; Turkish Grey; Holstein Friesian; innate immunity; next generation sequencing; TLR2; TLR4; TLR6 Anatolian Black; East Anatolian Red; South Anatolian Red; Turkish Grey; Holstein Friesian; innate immunity; next generation sequencing; TLR2; TLR4; TLR6
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bilgen, N.; Cinar Kul, B.; Offord, V.; Werling, D.; Ertugrul, O. Determination of Genetic Variations of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2, 4, and 6 with Next-Generation Sequencing in Native Cattle Breeds of Anatolia and Holstein Friesian. Diversity 2016, 8, 23.

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