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Diversity 2013, 5(2), 166-239; doi:10.3390/d5020166
Article

Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico

1,*  and 2
1 Department of Biology, Barry University, 11300 NE Second Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161-6695, USA 2 SW 33rd Ct, Miramar, FL 33029, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2013 / Revised: 2 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 9 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeography and Biodiversity Conservation)

Abstract

We describe and illustrate the biogeography of the cicadas inhabiting continental North America, north of Mexico. Species distributions were determined through our collecting efforts as well as label data from more than 110 institutional collections. The status of subspecies is discussed with respect to their distributions. As we have shown over limited geographic areas, the distribution of individual species is related to the habitat in which they are found. We discuss the biogeography of the genera with respect to their phylogenetic relationships. California is the state with the greatest alpha diversity (89 species, 46.6% of taxa) and unique species (35 species, 18.3% of taxa). Texas, Arizona, Colorado and Utah are the states with the next greatest alpha diversity with Texas, Arizona and Utah being next for unique species diversity. Maine, New Hampshire and Rhode Island are the states with the least amount of cicada diversity. Diversity is greatest in states and areas where there is a diversity of plant communities and habitats within these communities. Mountainous terrain also coincides with increases in diversity. Several regions of the focus area require additional collection efforts to fill in the distributions of several species.
Keywords: cicada; distribution; Diceroprocta; Tibicen; Okanagana; Okanagodes; Cacama; Magicicada; Platypedia; Cicadetta cicada; distribution; Diceroprocta; Tibicen; Okanagana; Okanagodes; Cacama; Magicicada; Platypedia; Cicadetta
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Sanborn, A.F.; Phillips, P.K. Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico. Diversity 2013, 5, 166-239.

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