Diversity 2012, 4(2), 224-238; doi:10.3390/d4020224

Marine Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Governance of the Oceans

Received: 19 March 2012; in revised form: 9 May 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 18 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Law of Climate Change and Biodiversity Protection)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Governance of marine biodiversity has long suffered from lack of adequate information about the ocean’s many species and ecosystems. Nevertheless, even as we are learning much more about the ocean’s biodiversity and the impacts to it from stressors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and marine pollution, climate change is imposing new threats and exacerbating existing threats to marine species and ecosystems. Coastal nations could vastly improve their fragmented approaches to ocean governance in order to increase the protections for marine biodiversity in the climate change era. Specifically, three key governance improvements would include: (1) incorporation of marine spatial planning as a key organizing principle of marine governance; (2) working to increase the resilience of marine ecosystems be reducing or eliminating existing stressors on those ecosystems; and (3) anticipation of climate change’s future impacts on marine biodiversity through the use of anticipatory zoning and more precautionary regulation.
Keywords: marine; ocean; biodiversity; marine spatial planning; MSP; climate change; adaptation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Craig, R.K. Marine Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Governance of the Oceans. Diversity 2012, 4, 224-238.

AMA Style

Craig RK. Marine Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Governance of the Oceans. Diversity. 2012; 4(2):224-238.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Craig, Robin Kundis. 2012. "Marine Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Governance of the Oceans." Diversity 4, no. 2: 224-238.

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