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Diversity 2018, 10(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030076

Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in the Karakoram Mountains of Northern Pakistan

1
Organic Plant Production and Agroecosystems Research in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Kassel, Steinstrasse 19, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
2
Department of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 2, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
3
Laboratory of Population Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Russia
4
Laboratory of Forest Genomics, Genome Research and Education Center, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia
5
Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2138, USA
6
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, 66000 Multan, Pakistan
7
Tropenzentrum and International Center for Development and Decent Work (ICDD), University of Kassel, Steinstrasse 19, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a dioecious, wind-pollinated shrub growing in Eurasia including the Karakoram Mountains of Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan territory). Contrary to the situation in other countries, in Pakistan this species is heavily underutilized. Moreover, a striking diversity of berry colors and shapes in Pakistan raises the question: which varieties might be more suitable for different national and international markets? Therefore, both morphological and genetic diversity of sea buckthorn were studied to characterize and evaluate the present variability, including hypothetically ongoing domestication processes. Overall, 300 sea buckthorn individuals were sampled from eight different populations and classified as wild and supposedly domesticated stands. Dendrometric, fruit and leaf morphometric traits were recorded. Twelve EST-SSRs (expressed sequence tags-simple sequence repeats) markers were used for genotyping. Significant differences in morphological traits were found across populations and between wild and village stands. A significant correlation was found between leaf area and altitude. Twenty-two color shades of berries and 20 dorsal and 15 ventral color shades of leaves were distinguished. Mean genetic diversity was comparatively high (He = 0.699). In total, three distinct genetic clusters were observed that corresponded to the populations’ geographic locations. Considering high allelic richness and genetic diversity, the Gilgit-Baltistan territory seems to be a promising source for selection of improved germplasm in sea buckthorn. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiversity; domestication; EST-SSR markers; gene flow; Gilgit-Baltistan; RHS color charts biodiversity; domestication; EST-SSR markers; gene flow; Gilgit-Baltistan; RHS color charts
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Nawaz, M.A.; Krutovsky, K.V.; Mueller, M.; Gailing, O.; Khan, A.A.; Buerkert, A.; Wiehle, M. Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in the Karakoram Mountains of Northern Pakistan. Diversity 2018, 10, 76.

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